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education  Bank woman


When we bring our money to the bank, we hope not only for their safe keeping, but also for having interest. Though a stocking and a pot for keeping money are still popular and we often compare modern banks with card-tables and pyramids, the profession of a banker evokes respect mixed with envy.

The profession of a banker evokes respect mixed with envy

The word bank has several meanings. On the one hand it means a big credit institution, from the other a card game and in the card game money put in the kitty. The meaning of this word is explained by its origin: it came from the Italian word banco, or a table, where usurers and money-changers concluded bargains. Banks became the agents in credit operations and payments since their appearance; they gathered free capitals and made loans. Together with investment, insurance and other credit institutions banks form the credit system of every country.

In Ancient Russia only a private person could get money and only at high interest. According to the code of the Old Russian laws, which was called Russkaya Pravda (that means Russian Truth), 20% were legal and the punishment was only for 60%. Tsar Alexey Mihailovich forbade giving money at interest in his code (1649) because of unconformity with the rules of the Church. Under Peter I a monetary office, which became the first credit institution, appeared in St. Petersburg. The 13th of March (according to the old style), 1754 is considered to be the birthday of the first bank. On that day Empress Elizaveta Petrovna issued an edict, which established the Nobiliary Loan Bank for making loans to noblemen and the Merchant Bank for the port merchants, who traded in St. Petersburg.

In 1785 Empress Ekaterina II allowed the members of city societies to have their own exchequer and open banks, using their private capitals. In that way the City Ostashkov Bank appeared. It was founded by the merchant K. A. Savin, who invested 25000 rubles in the main capital of the bank; later, other investors joined him. Using the capital of the bank, several barracks, home for invalids, a harbour,  charitable and other institutions were built in the city. In 1870 the Volzhsko-Kamsk Commercial Bank was founded thanks to the capitals of the Milutins (2 brothers), K. A. Soldatenkov, T. S. Morozov, A. M. Tarasov, the Polezhaevs and enthusiasm of V. A. Kokorev. The bank linked capital centers with provinces.

Bank Houses also began to appear. It is interesting that their founders were the members of one family.
 I. V. Yunker & Co and G. Volkov with Sons were among them.

In pre-reform Russia banks made loans to noblemen and gave credits for trade. The most popular banks were the Bank for Nobility (1754-1786), the State Loan Bank (1786-1860) and the Commercial Bank (1818-1860).
After 1861 banks invested money mainly into the industry development. The Nobiliary Bank and the Peasant bank gave the ground credits. By the beginning of the World War I, the number of banks was about 1476. Credit institutions were divided into 3 groups: state, public and private.
After the revolution of 1917 banking was declared to be the state monopoly, and the State Bank became the main institution of the credit system. It was the bank of issue, calculation and credit center of the country. Stroybank and Vneshtorgbank were also the part of the credit system.

Present banks offer such services, as giving credits, making stock and interbank operations, currency transactions, investing profitable and perspective projects etc.

 Banking was a business only for men for a long time. A word banker associated with a solid, reliable man, though many features, which are necessary for successful career in banking, are peculiar just to women: intuition, perspicacity, diligence, scrupulosity.

Nowadays, womans participation in financial business doesnt surprise anybody. Tatyana Paramonova, the First Vice-President of the Central Bank of Russia has distinguished prestige about 30 years, disproving all prejudices that a banker is a noun of masculine gender. Moreover, her successful career is not an exception. Little by little, Russian bank women obtain international recognition. G. I. Dubinkina, the President of Interprogressbank, was awarded on the bilateral Russian-British conference Ten years of the present bank system formation in Russia. Women-managers of the bank and financial business in the economic life of the country. G. I. Dubinkina got the diploma For professionalism and a high level of management showed in the years of economic reorganization of Russia.

Association of business woman of Russia held the All-Russian competition Woman is a director of the year, and bank women were also among the recipients: Zoya Kopchenkova, the manager of the Industrial Department 8364 of the Russian Savings Bank, and Svetlana Suholovskaya, the manager of the branch of the Russian Savings bank in Lermontov.

It can be read about the banker Svetlana Karpova, the head of the Arhangelsk branch of FundServiceBank, on the pages of the informative portal Nord West Media.

There is an ironical attitude of men to the abilities and intellectual faculties of a woman even nowadays. Phenomena of the successful career of a woman in banking still surprise the male half. This theme becomes the subject of journalists and writers research. It seems to them that womans features and the features of executive, especially of a banker, are incompatible. Bank women are also in the center of producers attention.

Bank women establish different associations to defend their interests and for the mutual support. National association of bank women was founded in New-York in 1923. By 1985 the number of its members was 30000. In 1975 seven bank women organized the international banking network for the business women support all over the world. Little by little, the network spread to 41 countries, including Russia.

In banking women start their career as accountants and clerks, often combining work with study. Aspiration for promoting, private features, higher education and practice are the most important conditions for the successful career.

Features, which are required for mastering the profession of a banker, will be useful for any profession, but in banking they are necessary: responsibility, energy in getting things done, ability to find sound decisions quickly, discipline, economy.

Higher education is also necessary for the career. There is a wide choice of institutes of higher education; they differ in starting possibilities and perspectives, financial expenses and methods of education. Try and youll be successful.

Advices of the wisest people to the students and university entrants:

I respect people, who know what they want. The majority of troubles all over the world happen because people dont realize their aims well. (I. Goethe)

A good plan today is better than a very good plan tomorrow. (Patton)

Many leave people when they become grandees. (F. Glinka)

Illustrations from the book "Historical scetch of the trade institutions' development" (St. Petersburg, 1911) and the magazines of the 19th century:
    The State Bank. The view from Sadovaya street. Opened in 1860 with the capital 115 millions of rubles.
    Famous bankers:
. Savin, F. Rodokanaki, V. okorev,  . Soldatenkov, G. Eliseev.


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